A $7.25 billion settlement relating to credit card interchange fees continues to encounter stiff opposition from a number of major retailers and several significant retail trade associations.
The antitrust case against Visa, MasterCard and several issuing banks stemmed from a dispute relating to the percentage of credit card transaction fees that retailers must remit to the credit card processing network. The fees generally range from 1.5-3 percent and are shared with the bank that issued the card.
Also known as “swipe fees,” these charges serve to underwrite the supporting infrastructure that allows businesses to accept and process credit cards. Large retailers and supporting associations have repeatedly complained about the costs associated with accepting credit cards and the fees for merchant services.
These grievances resulted in a number of lawsuits filed in 2005, which were eventually consolidated into a single case known as the Payment Interchange Fee and Merchant Discount Antitrust Litigation.
There were 139 parties involved as plaintiffs, and the case was active for over eight years. In July 2012, a settlement was reached that provided $6 billion in damages to affected retailers and another $1.2 billion for a temporary reduction in interchange fees. As a further concession, Visa and MasterCard eliminated certain rules for merchant services that prohibited surcharging, which is a practice that allows retailers to recoup credit card costs by passing them on to the consumer.
Almost immediately, opposition to the swipe fee settlement began to emerge. The primary objections centered on the belief that the agreement does not provide any meaningful reforms to the current model. Many merchants believe that market forces will not allow for credit card surcharges since consumers will object to the added fees. Other retailers oppose the stipulation in the agreement that prohibits future swipe fee lawsuits.
As a result, major retailers such as Target, Nike, Home Depot, Lowes, Starbucks and Best Buy ultimately opted out of the settlement. Major trade organizations, including the National Restaurant Association (NRA), have voiced significant opposition to the agreement. In fact, the NRA strongly encouraged its constituent members to reject the settlement and highlighted the potential negative impact it could have on the emerging mobile payments market.
Many retailers ultimately declined to participate in the settlement. Since the total number merchants who opted out exceeded 25 percent of the collective annual U.S. retail transaction volume, MasterCard and Visa could have elected to withdraw from the deal. However, they chose to continue with the process.
In September 2013, a fairness hearing was held in U.S. District Court under Judge John Gleeson that allowed dissenters to present final arguments. Gleeson is expected to issue a decision on the settlement sometime in mid-January 2014.
After assessing their options, Target Corp. and 17 other retailers filed a separate lawsuit against Visa and MasterCard in May 2013. The plaintiffs charged that the banks and credit card companies have engaged in an “illegal and anti-competitive scheme.” They contend that the Visa Check Swipe Fee settlement did not adequately address the basic issues of the original case.
In the most recent action relating to the new litigation, Visa and MasterCard argued in federal court that the pending antitrust action initiated by Target Corp. is prohibited under the terms of the July 2012 settlement deal. The defendants contend that the retailers have misinterpreted the terms of release relating to the previous case for the sole purpose of instigating additional litigation.
MasterCard and Visa strongly reject the plaintiff’s arguments and contend that the Visa Check swipe fee settlement case preempts any new action relating to interchange fees, which they contend were adequately addressed under the previous settlement.
To review the full extent of this ongoing saga, you can read our previous coverage of this settlement:
- The Big Cash Comeback
- Don’t Call it a Comeback
- NRF Opposes Interchange Settlement
- Interchange Settlement Nears Preliminary Approval
- Merchants Appeal Key Part of Interchange Settlement
- Interchange Settlement Given Preliminary OK
- Challengers Awaiting Final Approval
- What Does the Future Hold for Interchange