FedNow Pricing: Fed Sets Pricing for Instant Payments

FedNow Pricing: Fed Sets Pricing for Instant Payments

Posted: May 3, 2024 | Updated: May 1, 2024

The new instant payment rail from the Federal Reserve, FedNow, allows bank payments to settle instantly. A trial program for the system, which involved rigorous testing and feedback collection from a diverse group of participants, was started in January 2021. With 41 banks and 15 service providers, the system was formally launched in July 2023, a testament to the successful trial completion and the system’s readiness for full-scale implementation.

Compared to regular bank payments like ACH, which took one to three business days to settle and were viewed as possible “market breakers,” FedNow transfers have an advantage. Recent reports, however, suggest that the Federal Reserve has no plans to cause market disruptions. The FedNow pricing for instant payments has been set. This pricing matches the rival RTP network to prevent upsetting the market.

Key Takeaways
  • Strategic Market Balancing: The Federal Reserve’s meticulous approach to pricing FedNow instant payments reflects its unwavering commitment to market stability. By aligning fees with those of competitors, particularly the RTP network, the Fed aims to foster innovation without disrupting the financial ecosystem, ensuring a seamless transition to real-time payment solutions.
  • Driving Adoption: The Fed’s innovative pricing model for FedNow, including fee waivers and discounts, is designed to stimulate rapid adoption by financial institutions. By offering incentives such as waived fees for initial periods and discounts on transaction costs, the Fed encourages broader participation, accelerating the integration of real-time payment capabilities across the industry.
  • Ensuring Cost Recovery and Investment: FedNow’s fee structure reflects the Federal Reserve’s dual objectives of cost recovery and continued investment in infrastructure and security. The Fed aims to cover operational expenses while advancing payment security and resilience, safeguarding the financial system’s integrity through fees like the monthly participation fee and liquidity management transfer fee.
  • Addressing Adoption Challenges: Despite the advantages of real-time payments, cost considerations present significant challenges to adoption. The higher fees associated with FedNow, particularly for continuous availability, pose dilemmas for institutions and end-users. Balancing the benefits of instant settlements with associated costs remains a key consideration for businesses and consumers evaluating payment solutions in an evolving financial landscape.

FedNow Pricing: Understanding the Model and Market Impact

FedNow Pricing: Understanding  the Model and Market Impact

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Speed and convenience are key factors driving US consumers to adopt new fintech tools, and newer, more efficient payment options, such as peer-to-peer payment (P2P) apps and autopay, have emerged to meet these preferences. FedNow is the latest payment rail to offer greater speed, convenience, and choice, expanding its reach since its launch and quickly gaining popularity. Immediate payments, a key feature of FedNow, refer to transactions that are processed and settled in real-time, providing users with instant access to their funds and enhancing their financial flexibility.

Before FedNow launched, there were worries that it would upend the industry and greatly affect P2P payment services. As a second mover, the Federal Reserve set prices for the new immediate payments system to equal those of the competing RTP network in an effort to avoid upsetting the market.

Daniel Baum
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The Senior Vice President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, Daniel Baum, a key figure in the development and implementation of FedNow, has admitted that they do not have any data to support their pricing. In response, they have devised a plan to avoid being the second mover in the market, a strategy that underscores the Fed’s commitment to responsible and informed decision-making.

The Fed launched the FedNow Service in July 2023 with a pricing structure intended to promote financial institutions’ quick adoption. A $25 monthly service cost per routing transit number (RTN) account was waived, along with a waiver of all fees for 2023 and discounts on the $0.045 consumer credit transfer charge (sending fee) for the first 2,500 transfers made each month. A $25 monthly participation cost, a $1 managing liquidity transaction fee, a $0.01 request for the payment cost, and a $0.045 return consumer credit transfer fee (for rejected or declined payments) are all included in the price schedule for 2024.

These modifications show the Fed’s attempts to encourage the broad use of immediate payments while modifying the fee schedule to guarantee cost recovery, ongoing investment in infrastructure modernization, and advancements in payment security and resilience.

FedNow’s pricing includes the Private Sector Adjustment Factor, a component that considers potential profit margins and tax liabilities if a private company were to provide the same services. By incorporating this factor, the Fed ensures that it does not undercut its private rivals. However, this also means that the system’s pricing may not be as competitive as it could be, potentially affecting its attractiveness to certain market players.

The amount of this fee is determined by the number and kind of transactions that FedNow processes annually. The cost of Federal Reserve services includes these imputed charges, a term that refers to the estimated value of services provided by the Federal Reserve, which investments in security measures, regulatory compliance, and real-time technologies must cover. Due to their potential lack of resources compared to larger banks, smaller institutions may find it more difficult to make these investments and may, therefore, need to use third-party solutions to handle these requirements.

Since FedNow’s introduction last year, some 700 financial institutions have signed up, compared to only 35. Still, this falls well short of the 10,000 credit unions and banks that are potentially eligible to join the system. The Federal Reserve is actively watching the adoption rate.

Challenges of Cost and Fees with FedNow Adoption

The associated costs and fees are a significant challenge for many companies considering FedNow. While these fees are comparable to competitors like TCH’s RTP Network, they are somewhat higher than those of services that don’t operate 24/7—indicating a premium for FedNow’s round-the-clock availability.

This continuous availability, a key feature of FedNow, adds to the overall cost, posing issues for companies contemplating FedNow adoption. The participating institutions must decide to either absorb these costs or pass them on to their customers. While the round-the-clock availability enhances customer convenience and can be a significant selling point for the system, it also increases the operational costs for the participating institutions, potentially affecting the system’s adoption and pricing dynamics.

It isn’t easy to pass the expenses on to the end user because some clients can only utilize the service if they require 24/7, instantaneous payment processing. On the other hand, it is only feasible to absorb the additional expenditures if there is sufficient demand from clients, enabling the business to draw in new clients or enhance operations through this product offering. This highlights the potential benefits and drawbacks of the ‘continuous availability’ feature, a key aspect of FedNow’s value proposition.

Most companies and customers do not need their accounts settled right away, especially if a premium is involved. If the functionality helps them and is included at no additional cost, they could be more likely to select a solution that offers it.

About FedNow

About FedNow

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The FedNow Service, developed by the Federal Reserve, enables instant payments for individuals and businesses. The service is available to all depository institutions in the United States, including banks and credit unions of all sizes. Launched on July 20, 2023, by 2024, hundreds of financial institutions were utilizing it.

FedNow operates continuously, offering 24/7/365 processing with integrated clearing functionality. It allows financial institutions to provide end-to-end instant payment services to their customers and accommodates a variety of instant payments, including account-to-account (A2A) transfers and bill payments.


FedNow’s introduction as the Federal Reserve’s instant payment rail represents a significant advancement in the financial landscape, offering speed, convenience, and choice to users. Despite initial concerns about market disruption, the Fed’s pricing strategy aligns with competitors like the RTP network, aiming to foster adoption without destabilizing the industry.

The pricing model, including fee waivers and adjustments, reflects a balance between encouraging participation and ensuring cost recovery for infrastructure investments and security measures. However, challenges persist, particularly regarding costs and fees, which may deter some businesses from immediate adoption. Balancing the benefits of continuous availability with associated expenses remains crucial as FedNow seeks broader acceptance in the financial sector. With ongoing monitoring and adaptation, FedNow promises to transform payment systems while addressing institutions’ and consumers’ needs and concerns.

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