The evolution of how customers pay businesses has changed dramatically over the past half century or so. Cash was king during the infancy of American Express, MasterCard, and Visa. But as their networks expanded and more and more consumers began to expect to be able to pay with plastic in stores, merchants felt the pressure of lost sales if they turned away customers with credit cards. Now that card payments are a major force in the economy, a system had to be setup to move this “virtual” currency from customer to business. This system is the basis of interchange.
What Exactly are Interchange Fees?
Interchange fees are payments for handling the transaction between a business’ bank account and the cardholder’s bank account. They cover the costs of converting the electronic transaction through a credit or debit card into funds in the merchant’s account. These fees also cover administrative services and fraud risk.
The card networks (Visa, MasterCard, Discover, and American Express) have developed intricate pricing models based off of criteria like brand, geography, card type, business type, and even transaction type. With all these variables it is easy to understand why there are hundreds of different interchange rates.
Why do we Need Interchange?
The original intent behind charging merchants interchange was to offset the risk that issuing banks took for any losses occurring from debt default by the cardholder. According to Visa “the primary role of interchange is to create the right balance of incentives between a cardholders’ financial institutions – which promote and issue Visa cards to consumers – and a merchants’ financial institutions – which enroll and process Visa transactions for merchants.” Or basically that it is a balance between what the businesses are willing to pay for the ability to accept cards and what the banks are willing to accept as far as risk of profit and loss.
Interchange in the Past
In the early 1970s interchange was just one rate. As more merchants in different industries began to accept credit cards and new card types and rewards were introduced new rates began to appear in the interchange charts. The goal of the card networks when determining what rates to establish has always been a balancing act between covering any losses banks may realize and keeping the cost to merchants low enough so that it is attractive from a financial standpoint to the business.
So What is Next for Interchange?
As interchange fees are set by individual card companies there is an ever present need to adjust rates. These pressures include other card brands and new and emerging technology. Since banks have the freedom to choose what card type they issue to their customers, they will usually favor the choice that gives them the most profit, which keeps rates overall pretty competitive.
Legislation and legal costs can also factor in to where rates are headed. Late in 2012 a judge ruled against Visa and MasterCard in a class action lawsuit brought against the card companies by retailers and other business associations. The retail merchants accused Visa and MasterCard of increasing swipe rates while there was no legislation to protect the businesses from high fees. Previous to this litigation, the Federal government passed the Durbin amendment that set a ceiling on what card brands could charge for certain debit transactions. This bill was designed to greatly lower the cost to merchants, and therefore consumers, when paying with a debit card. Lawmakers argued that the risk to banks was very low with this type of card and thus did not justify the high rate that businesses were paying.
While it seems that only banks and card companies love interchange rates, it is hard to envision the complex systems we have without some sort of cost associated. The truth of the matter is that if your business is going to accept credit cards, you are going to pay interchange rates no matter what merchant services company you decide to go with. The advantage that Host Merchant Services offers over other is the transparent, easy to understand pricing model that is interchange plus. Quite simply you just pay a small markup over published interchange rates for any given card. No tricks like with tiered pricing or overpaying with a flat-rate for every card.
If you aren’t currently accepting credit cards at your business contact one of our payment experts today at 877-517-4678 or simply fill out our quick sign up form. They will guide you through the process of setting up a merchant account and explain the benefits of taking this form of payment. And if you are already taking card payments let us provide a free, no strings attached statement analysis to see if you truly are getting as good of a deal as you think.